Crime Policy Research

Evaluations of deterrence-focused crime policies, situational counterterrorism interventions, and field experiments to improve procedural justice in police-citizen encounters.


Apel, Robert. (2013). Sanctions, perceptions, and crime: Implications for criminal deterrence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 29: 67-101.

Apel, Robert. (2016). On the deterrent effect of stop, question, and frisk (policy essay). Criminology and Public Policy 15: 57-66.

Apel, Robert and Samuel E. DeWitt. (2018). Formal and informal sanctions. In Daniel S. Nagin, Francis T. Cullen, and Cheryl Lero Johnson (Eds.), Deterrence, Choice, and Crime: Contemporary Perspectives. Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 23 (pp. 139-156). New York: Routledge.

Apel, Robert, Samuel E. DeWitt, and Rose Bellandi. (2014). Is capital punishment an effective deterrent for murder? An updated review of research and theory. In James R. Acker, Robert M. Bohm, and Charles S. Lanier (Eds.), America’s Experiment with Capital Punishment: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the Ultimate Penal Sanction (3rd ed., pp. 243-288). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Apel, Robert and Daniel S. Nagin. (2011). General deterrence: A review of recent evidence. In James Q. Wilson and Joan Petersilia (Eds.), Crime and Public Policy (4th ed., pp. 411-436). New York: Oxford University Press.

Apel, Robert, Greg Pogarsky, and Leigh Bates. (2009). The sanctions-perceptions link in a model of school-based deterrence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 25: 201-226.

Braga, Anthony A., Robert Apel, and Brandon C. Welsh. (2014). The spillover effects of focused deterrence on gang violence. Evaluation Review 37: 314-342.

Bushway, Shawn D. and Robert Apel. (2012). A signaling perspective on employment-based reentry programming: Training completion as a desistance signal. Criminology and Public Policy 11: 21-50.

Demir, Mustafa, Robert Apel, Anthony A. Braga, Rod K. Brunson, and Barak Ariel. (In press). Body worn cameras, procedural justice, and police legitimacy: A controlled experimental evaluation of traffic stops. Justice Quarterly.

Hsu, Henda Y. and Robert Apel. (2015). A situational model of substitution effects in response to airport metal detectors. Terrorism and Political Violence 27: 29-52.

Perry, Simon, Robert Apel, Graeme R. Newman, and Ronald V. Clarke. (2017). The situational prevention of terrorism: An evaluation of the Israeli West Bank barrier. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 33: 727-751.

Sahin, Nusret, Anthony A. Braga, Robert Apel, and Rod K. Brunson. (2017). The impact of procedurally-just policing on citizen perceptions of police during traffic stops: The Adana randomized controlled trial. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 33: 701-726.

Sweeten, Gary and Robert Apel. (2007). Incapacitation: Revisiting an old question with a new method and new data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23: 303-326.

Wermink, Hilde, Robert Apel, Paul Nieuwbeerta, and Arjan A. J. Blokland. (2013). The incapacitation effect of first-time imprisonment: A matched samples comparison. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 29: 579-600.