Labor Market Research

Empirical studies of the relationship between employment and crime, the impact of criminal justice involvement on long-term employment; and the comparative effects of unemployment versus other government benefits on recidivism.


Apel, Robert, Shawn Bushway, Robert Brame, Amelia M. Haviland, Daniel S. Nagin, and Raymond Paternoster. (2007). Unpacking the relationship between adolescent employment and antisocial behavior: A matched samples comparison. Criminology 45: 67-97.

Apel, Robert, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster, Robert Brame, and Gary Sweeten. (2008). Using state child labor laws to identify the causal effect of youth employment on deviant behavior and academic achievement. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 24: 337-362.

Apel, Robert and Julie Horney. (2017). How and why does work matter? Employment conditions, routine activities, and crime among adult male offenders. Criminology 55: 307-343.

Apel, Robert, Raymond Paternoster, Shawn D. Bushway, and Robert Brame. (2006). A job isn’t just a job: The differential impact of formal versus informal work on adolescent problem behavior. Crime and Delinquency 52: 333-369.

Apel, Robert and Kathleen Powell. (2019). Level of criminal justice contact and early adult wage inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences 5: 198-222.

Apel, Robert and Anke Ramakers. (2019). Impact of incarceration on employment prospects. In Beth M. Huebner and Natasha A. Frost (Eds.), Handbook on the Consequences of Sentencing and Punishment Decisions. The ASC Division on Corrections and Sentencing Handbook Series, Vol. 3 (pp. 85-104). New York: Routledge.

Apel, Robert and Gary Sweeten. (2010). The impact of incarceration on employment during the transition to adulthood. Social Problems 57: 448-479.

Brame, Robert, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster, and Robert Apel. (2004). Assessing the effect of adolescent employment on involvement in criminal activity. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 20: 236-256.

Paternoster, Raymond, Shawn Bushway, Robert Brame, and Robert Apel. (2003). The effect of teenage employment on delinquency and problem behaviors. Social Forces 82: 297-335.

Ramakers, Anke, Robert Apel, Paul Nieuwbeerta, Anja Dirkzwager, and Johan van Wilsem. (2014). Imprisonment length and post-prison employment prospects. Criminology 52: 399-427.

Ramakers, Anke, Johan van Wilsem, and Robert Apel. (2012). The effect of labour market absence on finding employment: A comparison between ex-prisoners and unemployed future prisoners. European Journal of Criminology 9: 442-461.

Verbruggen, Janna, Robert Apel, Victor R. van der Geest, and Arjan A. J. Blokland. (2015). Work, income support, and crime in the Dutch welfare state: A longitudinal study following vulnerable youths into adulthood. Criminology 53: 545-570.