Empirical studies of the consequences of a variety of transitional life events for crime and wellbeing, including experiences related to marriage, military service, victimization, and incarceration.
Apel, Robert. (2016). The effects of jail and prison confinement on cohabitation and marriage. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 665: 103-126.
Apel, Robert, Arjan A. J. Blokland, Paul Nieuwbeerta, and Marieke van Schellen. (2010). The impact of imprisonment on marriage and divorce: A risk set matching approach. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 26: 269-300.
Apel, Robert and John D. Burrow. (2011). Adolescent victimization and violent self-help. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 9: 112-133.
Apel, Robert, Laura Dugan, and Ráchael Powers. (2013). Gender and injury risk in incidents of assaultive violence. Justice Quarterly 30: 561-593.
Burrow, John D. and Robert Apel. (2008). Youth behavior, school structure, and student risk of victimization. Justice Quarterly 25: 349-380.
Powers, Ráchael and Robert Apel. (2016). The impact of situational context on assault completion: The moderating role of relational distance. Journal of Crime and Justice 39: 473-489.
Van Schellen, Marieke, Robert Apel, and Paul Nieuwbeerta. (2012). “Because you’re mine, I walk the line?” Marriage, spousal criminality, and criminal offending over the life course. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 28: 701-723.
Van Schellen, Marieke, Robert Apel, and Paul Nieuwbeerta. (2012). The impact of military service on criminal offending over the life course: Evidence from a Dutch conviction cohort. Journal of Experimental Criminology 8: 135-164.
Wakefield, Sara and Robert Apel. (2016). Criminal justice and the life course. In Michael J. Shanahan, Jeylan T. Mortimer, and Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson (Eds.), Handbook of the Life Course, Vol. 2 (pp. 301-319). New York: Springer.